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“International Nathiagali Summer Colleges (INSC) on Physics and Contemporary Needs have been organized every year since 1976. The idea of holding these Colleges came from the distinguished Nobel Laureate, Professor Abdus Salam who emphasized the vital need of communication, as well as for transferring and sharing scientific knowledge among the scientific community. The primary aim of the College is to break the isolation of the scientists of the developing countries by enabling them to interact with an international faculty. INSC helps Scientist to share knowledge and to learn from each other’s experiences, an opportunity, unique in the third world has been provided by this college to younger and active scientists for establishing and renewing contracts with world renowned scientists. Over the years, about 1,000 eminent scientists and speakers including 08 Nobel Laureates from leading universities, research centers and industries of advanced countries have lectured as faculty at INSC and shared their knowledge with more than 1,000 foreign scientists from over 75 developing countries and about 11,350 scientists from Pakistani R&D institutes and universities. The scientific activities of INSC aim at the broad coverage of topics at the frontiers of knowledge in Physics and allied sciences. Every year three to five subjects of current interest and their applications with special reference to needs of the developing countries are highlighted.”

Salam Memorial Lectures

The 20th College was held in the honor of Professor Abdus Slam in 1996. He however, was unable to attend due to health problems. A special session was held where several distinguished scientists from Pakistan and abroad, mostly his co-workers, paid glowing tributes to the Nobel laureate while recollecting his scientific achievements and contributions towards the development of science, particularly in the Third World. The Late Prof. Dr. Riazuddin gave a perspective of his work and personal views based on his association with him for forty years. Professor Abdus Salam sent a message on the occasion.

“I send my very best wishes for the continuing success of the Nathiagali Summer College and feel honored that the 20th College is dedicated to me. I, however, regret that I will not be able to come personally to Nathiagali”.

The great scientist passed into history on 21st November, 1996. After his sad demise, the annual Salam Memorial Lecture has become a special feature of the INSC.

  • The first lecture in this series was delivered by Professor Robert Peccei from University of California, LA, USA. On “Mystery of flavours” at the 22nd College.
  • In 23rd College, Salam Memorial Lecture was delivered by Dr. Ahmed Ali, DESY, Hamburg, Germany, on “Flavour Mixing and CP Violation”.
  • In 24th College, Professor Sergio Ferrara, from CERN, Switzerland delivered Salam Memorial Lecture on “Super-space and Super-gravity, A quest for Unification”.
  • Prof. Roger Cashmore, Director Research CERN, gave the annual Salam Memorial Lecture at the 26th INSC.
  • The Salam Memorial Lecture in 29th INSC was delivered by Professor H. Schoper.
  • An Ex. DG, of CERN and President of SESAME Council. Professor Dame Louise Jonhnson (Mrs. Abdus Salam) also delivered a lecture in the same College.
  • In 2005, Salam lecture was delivered by professor Roberto Battiston from University of Penugia, Italy.
  • In 32nd, 33rd , 34th, 35th and 36th INSC Salam Memorial Lectures were delivered by Professor Riazuddin.
  • In 37th College the Salam Lectures was delivered by Dr. Ken Peach,UK
  • In 38th INSC it was delivered by Dr. Fernando Quevedo, Director ICTP.
  • In 39th and 40th by Dr. John Weiner (France).
  • In 41st INSC The Salam Memorial Lecture was delivered by Prof. Jian Xiong Wang.
Dr. John Weiner
Dr. Ken Peach, UK
Prof. Dame Louise Jonhnson, ICTP
Prof. H. Shopper, CERN
Prof. Jian Xiong Wang
Prof. Riazuddin, Director INSC
Prof. Roger Cashmore, CERN
Prof. Rolf Dieter Heuer, CERN
Prof. Sergio Ferrara, CERN
Prof. Talat Rehman, US-NSF
Abdus Salam
Topic: Gauge Unification of Fundamental Forces
Year: 1979
Affiliation: ICTP, Italy. Imperial College, UK
Roger Penrose
Topic: For the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity.
Year: 2020
Affiliation: University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Chen Ning Yang
Topic: Law of Parity Conservation and Other Symmetry Laws of Physics.
Year: 1957
Affiliation: Institute for Advanced Study, Priceton, USA
Leo Esaki
Topic: Long journey into Tunneling.
Year: 1973
Affiliation: IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, NY, USA
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
Topic: Soft Matter.
Year: 1991
Affiliation: College De France, France
Robert Hofstadter
Topic: The Electron scattering method and method and its application to the structure of Nuclei and Nucleons.
Year: 1961
Affiliation: Stanford University, USA
Samuel C. Ting
Topic: The J/psi particle (Charm), and the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS).
Year: 1976
Affiliation: Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, USA
Roy Glauber
Topic: One hundred years of light quanta.
Year: 2005
Affiliation: Harvard University, USA.

The comments of the faculty and the participants attest to the effectiveness of this annual scientific activity. Some excerpts from the comments given are as follows:

“When the idea of the College was mooted in 1976, one hoped and prayed, but it was by no means clear, that the College would be held with this regularity, every year for one decade, nor that it would attract such international renown and standing. For this, credit goes to the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission and its Chairman. As it is now, Nathiagali College is the most consistently run college of the highest reputation in the entire subcontinent. Besides raising the level of physics in Pakistan, and bringing highly renowned physicists to Pakistan with whom Pakistani physicists have been able to keep in contact. We can take pride that the College has served the physics and mathematics communities from neighboring countries.

I wish to send to all the participants my warmest wishes for a very successful period of intensive exposure to new and exciting ideas in physics and that the College truly lives up to its title of “Physics and Contemporary Needs.”

“I found my participation in INSC very profitable and pleasant. I have nothing but praise for the organizers.”
Sir George Deacon, Faculty Member

“My principal impression was of the enthusiasm and interest of the students. Clearly, the College provided something they were missing. To have the chance to join a large group of active physicists for a while was, I am sure, of great value to them.”
Professor A.H. Cook, Faculty Member

“The participants were highly qualified and interested, the organization modern and efficient, the hospitality warm and profound. Your country, by supporting and organizing this College, has given to all the participants from more than thirty countries a splendid example. Future meetings of this kind are the most needed. They help to create personal and scientific links among leading scientists and universities in developing countries.”
Professor R. Ruffini, Faculty Member

Excerpts From the Letter of: Dr. Sigvard Eklund, Director General, IAEA: (10 September, 1976)

On behalf of the Agency and the Director General of UNESCO, I would like to express most sincere appreciation of the Government of Pakistan for the excellent arrangements made for the holding of the Summer College on Physics and Contemporary Needs in which 100 participants from 31 countries participated. The hospitality offered by your Government and, in particular, the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, was most favorably commented upon by lecturers and participants alike.

I believe that such joint ventures between the International Centre for Theoretical Physics and the organizations concerned will be of value in the development of physics research as related to the needs of developing countries and very much hope that means will be found for other such collaborative ventures in the future.

“…...This long standing Summer College appears to be well thought out and well organized. Its design promotes contact between US physicists and their counterparts in Pakistan and the region. Choice of the lecturers seems to have been very good. The lecturers, who have already participated, do appear to be distinguished researchers. The subjects of the College both possess high intrinsic merit and high utility and relevance for improved technology for the solution of social problems. The impact of the College will primarily be achieved through its effects on the infrastructure of science and engineering in the region.”

“I admire the organization and the hospitality of International Nathiagali Summer College. This college is fulfilling its obligation continuously for 40 years to the universities. The college should taken some steps to power down their activity to the undergraduate and high school level.”
Prof. Dr. John Weiner (Foreign Faculty from France)


The comments of the scientists who come as participants in the disclosure, attest to the effectiveness of this annual scientific activity:

“This Summer College is undoubtedly a success as it has helped in exposing developments in Physics.”
DR. S.N. Pandey, Participant from India

“All I can say it was well organised. I feel the people who organised this college worked really hard. The format was very satisfactory.”
Dr. T. M. Alsharbati, Participant from Iraq

“I would like to congratulate to Executive Secretary and his team for the excellent management of the College. Both Scientific and social activities were well organised. This College provided me good opportunity to meet the International and Pakistani Scientists. I hope we will make so many cooperation in various fields of Science.”
Dr. Osman Murat Ozkendir, Participant from Turkey

“The INSC was the most successful conference attended. The hospitality of Pakistan is beyond question. The lectures were quite interesting. The outcome of this conference is a research project in super conductivity in which I am involved at the National University.”
Dr. Mancouchehr Massachi, Participant from Iran

“The Summer College was well organised and very helpful for developing countries.”
Dr. Chunghi Rhee, Participant from Korea

“I wish to congratulate the organising committee for efficient management of the College. The format is very satisfactory as it gives an opportunity to meet the physicist working in different fields.”
Dr. Ramachandran, Participant from Sri Lanka

“I found the Summer College has a well organised one, the subject chosen for this college are appropriate for the underdeveloped countries.”
Dr. Chunghi Rhee, Participant from Korea

“I found the Summer College well organised, coming from an European country I appreciate also the possibility of having made myself familiar with the problem facing the Physics community in various developing countries.”
Dr. Fredor Srobar, Participant from Czechoslovakia